سان مارينو أو رسميًا جمهورية سان مارينو (بالإيطالية: Repubblica di San Marino) أو جمهورية سان مارينو الأكثر صفاء هي دولة تقع في شبه الجزيرة الإيطالية على الجانب الشرقي من جبال الأبينيني وهي عبارة عن مكتنف تحيط به إيطاليا. تزيد مساحتها قليلًا عن 61 كم2 وبتعداد سكان يقدر بأكثر من 30,000. عاصمتها هي مدينة سان مارينو. تمتلك سان مارينو أقل تعداد سكان بين أعضاء مجلس أوروبا.
سان مارينو هي أقدم دولة ذات سيادة وجمهورية دستورية في العالم، حيث أنها استمرار للمجتمع الرهباني الذي تأسس في 3 سبتمبر 301 على يد الحجار مارينوس من راب. تقول الأسطورة أن مارينوس غادر راب والتي كانت حينها مستعمرة رومانية باسم أربا في 257 عندما أصدر الإمبراطور المستقبلي ديوكلتيانوس مرسومًا بإعادة بناء أسوار مدينة ريميني، والتي كانت قد دمرت على يد القراصنة الليبورنيين.
دستور سان مارينو الذي سن في عام 1600 هو أقدم دستور في العالم لا يزال ساري المفعول. يعتمد اقتصاد البلد أساسًا على التمويل والخدمات والصناعة والسياحة. تعد من أغنى البلدان في العالم من حيث الناتج المحلي الإجمالي (للفرد) مع أرقام مماثلة لبعض المناطق الإيطالية الأكثر نموًا مثل لومبارديا وترينتينو ألتو أديجي. تعتبر سان مارينو ذات اقتصاد مستقر للغاية مع واحد من أدنى معدلات البطالة في أوروبا ومن دون أي دين وطني وفائض في الميزانية.
As of 1 January 2017, San Marino citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 155 countries and territories, ranking the San Marino passport 19th in terms of travel freedom (tied with Andorran passport) according to the Henley visa restrictions index. It is currently (2016) one of the two European "ordinary" passports to provide visa-free access to the People's Republic of China, and of all nationals who can travel visa-free to China, the citizens of San Marino are granted the longest period to stay (90 days).
University of San Marino
The University of San Marino is located in San Marino Città, the capital of the Republic of San Marino. UNIRSM offers three undergraduate programs, in Design, Civil Engineering, and Management Engineering, and several Masters degrees.
Here a short presentation of the University.
Design (undergraduate degree)
The undergraduate program in Design is characterized by some specific features. A small and selected number of students (one hundred each year) are admitted to the program to ensure a high level of attention to the students’ body and a close relationship between teachers and students.
Civil Engineering (undergraduate degree)
The three-year degree in Civil and Environmental Engineering - Civil curriculum - was activated by the University of the San Marino Republic) in the academic year 2007/2008 (according to DM 270/04) in collaboration with the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia.
Construction and land management (undergraduate degree)
The University of the San Marino Republic, in collaboration with the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, has activated a Bachelor’s Degree in Construction and Land Management, specifically conceived for the professional profile of the Surveyor Graduated
Management engineering (undergraduate degree)
The Management engineer studies the organizational and productive system of enterprises with quantitative approach, designing and applying models for the solution of their problems.
Design (graduate degree)
The changing context of contemporary design, characterized by the growing number of multimedia tools and digital devices, requires a specific approach to these new areas of design with a critical and responsible attitude. Our curriculum matches the most advanced international university programs, and considers the current status of the manufacturing industry and the demands of the job market.
Civil Engineering (graduate degree)
The Master of Science in Civil Engineering of the University of San Marino Republic is organized in collaboration with the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia and it meets the needs of an area where there are business and professional dynamic realities, strongly developed in the construction and infrastructure sector.
Master in Nutraceutical and food education
The Master in nutraceutical and food education aims to train professionals dedicated to primary prevention, nutritional support in specific areas and to the support of any therapeutic level through the correction of lifestyle, based on the latest scientific guidelines.
The International Master in strategy and planning of events and sports facilities was born in San Marino in 1996. Designed by international professionals that work in the sport industry, this program allows you to learn directly from the leaders in the field. Our teaching faculty and our guest speakers will share their invaluable experiences and strategies with the students. They will teach how to be successful in the sport industry.
More than 450 students have already participated in masterSport achieving professional and personal satisfaction.
Master in Strategic Design with Local Community
(from January 2018)
The Master’s activities are divided into three modules. Each module consists of integrated theoretical courses followed by operating modules (WORKSHOP on site) of variable duration from 2 to 4 weeks each. The workshops are designed as concrete project experiences and will be organized in different contexts and countries that will be identified in the annual planning of the Master.
If you have not already been accepted into a UNIRSM program, please contact the Student Office.
The Office for International Services is not a part of the admissions process, and they are not able to assist students regarding visa and immigration issues until after they have been admitted to the University.
Visa: There are different procedures for students coming from Schengen and Extra-Schengen area.
Please contact the International Office for more information: firstname.lastname@example.org
Quality of life in San Marino and at UNIRSM
The geographical context of San Marino, the architectural landscape of the Ancient Monastery of Santa Chiara — home of the University — and the scientific and pedagogical excellence — all contribute significantly to the overall quality of the University environment and the ability to provide services to students and institutional partners.
Small class size and a low student-teacher ratio provide a great mentoring environment, offering students the opportunity to have a better personal interaction with their teachers.
CITIZENSHIP OF SAN MARINO
Citizenship in San Marino is obtained by birth when the father and mother are both San Marino citizens. When only a single parent is a citizen of San Marino, within 12 months after child reaches the age of 18, both parents must declare that they wish to choose the citizenship of the parent that is a citizen of San Marino.
Citizenship in San Marino is also obtained by birth in the Republic, in case both parents are unknown or stateless.
The children of all San Marino citizens of 18 years of age, who continue to reside in in the territory of San Marino for a minimum of 10 years, can obtain citizenship.
One of the requirements to obtain this citizenship is good conduct; the applicant must not have been convicted of a criminal offence domestically or abroad, moreover, the applicant must not have been charged with a prison penalty or interdiction for over 1 year.
In cases of naturalization, citizenship is awarded to a foreign person by the Grand and General Council with legal provisions to be passed with a qualified two-thirds majority.
At the approval time of the legal provision, it is necessary that the applicant appear in the Registry Office for resident inhabitants and must not have been convicted of a criminal offence (unpremeditated) in the Republic or abroad, the applicant must not have been charged with a prison penalty or interdiction for over 1 year.
To obtain citizenship it is necessary to renounce any other citizenship and to have effectively continued to reside in the Republic for at least 30 years.
Foreigners residing in the Republic from birth can request naturalization when one of the parents or relatives up to the 2nd degree has maintained continuous residence in the Republic for 30 years. Citizenship obtained by naturalization may also be passed on to children of minor age.
In case of residence abroad, the applicant must appear before the appropriate authorities accompanied with all relevant documents and the authorities will then forward the documentation to the Registrar.
Here are 10 facts about refugees in San Marino.
- Refugees in San Marino have come from Italy, Czech Republic, Brazil and even Mexico in the past.
- During World War II, San Marino, who was neutral during the war, hosted approximately 100,000 refugees from Italy.
- Between 1998 and 2000, the refugee population in San Marino was four. In the years following San Marino did not see its refugee population exceed this number.
- Currently, there is only one reported case of a refugee in San Marino, making the region’s refugee population at one.
- San Marino is not included in the Geneva Convention of 1951 or the Protocol of 1967. However, the government still has a system in place for protecting refugees. This means that the San Marino government can protect refugees at risk of persecution based on race, religion, social group affiliation, political opinions and more.
- By action of the cabinet, the government can grant refugee status or asylum to those seeking refuge in San Marino. Requests for asylum are rare.
- Laws in San Marino allow for foreign travel, emigration and repatriation. The country’s government follows suit with the Office of the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees by providing assistance to asylum seekers and people who are considered stateless. This is also reflective of policies from other comparative humanitarian organizations.
- According to the Council of Europe Development Bank, as of 2015 San Marino contributed 20,000 euros to the Bank’s Migrant and Refugee Fund. This contribution was a sign of solidarity with San Marino’s support of European social cohesion and refugees in the area, according to the Bank’s report.
- According to a report from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, requests for softer citizenship requirements have been declined in the past, making it difficult for refugees to eventually obtain citizenship.
- More than one million migrants and refugees landed in European countries. By comparison, the refugee population in San Marino is a mere fraction of a percentage of that total. While there are numerous facts about San Marino refugees, these are 10 facts about San Marino refugees that are important to know.